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Coal and climate change

煤炭与气候变化

荜茇怎样读

Betting on black

押注煤情女炭出路暗淡

Asian go上古,310,长恨歌-雷竞技ios_雷竞技ios下载_雷竞技app苹果版vernments are the biggest supporters of the filthiest fuel

亚洲政府是最脏燃料的最大支撑者

In the dense gloom about climate change,ne上古,310,长恨歌-雷竞技ios_雷竞技ios下载_雷竞技app苹果版ws of coal’s decline seems like a pinprick of hope.President Donald Trump may adore“beautiful,clean coal”,明朝拜金女but even he cannot save it.A growing number of countries want to phase out coal entirely,a上古,310,长恨歌-雷竞技ios_雷竞技ios下载_雷竞技app苹果版 transition eased by cheap natural gas and the plunging cost of wind and solar power.

在气候变化的阴霾中,煤炭产值下降的音讯似乎是一丝期望。美国总统唐纳德•特朗普或许崇尚“美丽、清洁的煤炭”,但即便是特朗普也无法解救煤炭。越来越多的国免费x家期望彻底筛选煤炭,廉价的天然气和大幅下降的风能和太阳能发电本钱缓和了过渡进程。

That is good news.Coal has been the largest engine of climate change to date,accounting for nearly a third of the rise in average temperatures since the Industrial Revolution.Any pressure on it therefore counts as progress.

这是个好音讯。迄今为止,煤炭一向是气候变化的最大引擎,在工业紧b革新以来均匀气温的上升中占了近三分之一。因而,对煤炭施加的任何压力都被视为前进。

However,last year coal-fired electricity emitted more than ten gigatonnes of carbon dioxide for the first time,30%of the world’s total.It may be in decline in the West,but many Asian governments continue to promote coal-fired power generation.They are making a dangerous bet.

但是,上一年燃煤发电初次排放了超越100亿吨的二氧化碳,占国际总量的30%。在西方,这一份额或许正鄙人降,但许多亚洲国家的政府仍在持续推行燃煤发电。他们鄙人一个危险的赌注。

Asia accounts for 75%of the world’s coal demand—China alone consumes half of it.The Chinese government has taken steps to limit pollution and support rene东游到武之憨豆的假日w夜惑ables.Yet coal consumption there rose in 2018,as it did the year before.In India coal demand grew by 9%last year.In Vietnam it swelled by almost a quarter.To keep the rise in global temperatures to no more than 1.5C relative to pre-industrial times,climatologists insist that almost all coal plants must shut by 2050,which means starting to act now.Today’s trends would keep the last coal plant open until 2079,estimates UBS,a bank.Asia’s coal-firsmfk官网ed power regiment has a sprightly average age of 15,compared with a creaky 40 years in America,close to retirement.

亚洲占国际煤炭需求的75%,仅我国就占了一半。我国政府现已采纳办法约束污染,支撑可再生动力。但是,与前2017年相同,2018年我国的煤炭消费量有所上升。上一年印度的煤炭需求增加了9%。在越南,这一数字增加了近四分之一。为了将全球气温相对于工业化前时期的上升幅度控制在1.5摄氏度以内,气候学家坚持以为,到2050年,简直一切的燃煤电厂都有必要封闭,这意味着现在就要开端举动。据瑞士联合银行估量,依照现在的趋势,最终一家燃煤电厂将一向运营到2079年。亚洲燃煤电厂的均匀运转年限是15年,而美国牵强保持40年,最终挨近退休状况。

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There are several reasons for this,but王诗龄当杨颖花童 one stands out:government support.In India state-owned companies invest more than$6bn in coal mining and coal-fired power each year;statebacked banks provide some$10.6bn in financing.Indonesia doles out more than$2bn annually for consumption of coalfired power.Japan and South Korea finance coal projects outside their borders,too.

原因有许多,但最杰出的一个是:政府的支撑。在印度,国有企业每年在煤炭挖掘和燃煤发电曾宝玲方面的出资超越60亿美元;国有银行供给了约106亿美元的融资;印尼每年为燃煤发电开销逾20亿美元。日本和韩国也为境外煤炭项目供给资金。

Government support is hardly surprising.State-backed coal firms make money and create jobs.Wind turbines and solar panels provide power only intermittently;for now,dirtier power plants are needed as back up.Gas is pummelling coal in America,but remains a bit-player in India and much of South-East Asia,since it has to be imported and is relatively expensive.

政府的支撑家常便饭。国有煤炭企业赚钱并发明就业机会。风力涡轮机和太阳能电池板只能间歇性地供给电力;现在,需求更脏的发电厂作为后备。在美国,天然气正在替代煤炭,但在印度和东南亚大部分区域,天然气运用份额依然不高,由于天然气有必要进口,并且相对贵重。

Disentangling coal from the region’s economies is difficult.Indonesian coal companies are a powerful lobby;not coincidentally,power上古,310,长恨歌-雷竞技ios_雷竞技ios下载_雷竞技app苹果版 tariffs favour coal over wind and solar projects.In India coal subsidises passenger fees on railways.And heavy lending by state-owned banks has tied the health of the financial system to that of the coal industry.

将煤炭从这些区域的经济中分离出来是困难的。印尼煤炭公司是一个强壮的游说集体;与风能和太阳能嫡女明玉项目比较,电力关税更有利于煤炭项目,这并非偶然。在印度,煤炭收入能补助铁路客运费用。国有银行的很多放贷将金融体系的健康状况与煤炭行业的健康状况联络在一起。

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Nevertheless,governments betting on coal face three big risks.One is environmental.Emissions f虐肌肉男rom coal plants that are already built—let alone new ones—will ensure that the world exceeds the level of carbon-dioxide emissions likely to push gl611aaobal temperatures up by more than 1.5C.

但是,押注煤炭的政府面对三劲风日本污漫画大全险。一个是环境。已建成的燃煤电厂的排放——更不用说新建电厂了——将导致全球二氧化碳排放量超越或许将全球气温推高1.5摄氏度以上的水平。

There is an economic risk,too.Public-sector zeal for coal is matched only by private-sector distaste.Banks,including Asian ones,have increasingly said they will stop funding new coal plants.Wind and solar farms make coal look increasingly expensive.A study has found that private banks provided three-quarters of loans to Indian renewables projects last year;state-backed banks doled out two-thirds of those for coal.

第二是经济危险。与公共部门对煤上古,310,长恨歌-雷竞技ios_雷竞技ios下载_雷竞技app苹果版炭的热心相对的是私营部门对其的讨厌。包含亚洲银行在内越来越多的银行表明,将中止为新建燃煤电厂供给资金。风力发电厂和太阳能发电厂使得煤炭变得越来越贵重。一项研讨发现,上一年私有银行为印度可再生动力项目供给了四分之三的借款;其间三分之二由国有银行用于购买煤炭。

And then there is politics.Voters do not like breathing soot.More of them are concerned about climate change,too,as they face unpredictable growing seasons,floods and droughts.

第三是政治。选民不喜欢吸入烟尘。他们中更多的人也忧虑气候变化,由于他们面对着无法猜测的成长时节、洪水和干旱。

Promisingly,more Asian politicians are voicing support for clean power.In July Rodrigo Duterte,the Philippines’president,instructed his energy minister to reduce his country’s dependence on coal.In June India’猎豹队雷华s government said it planned to have 500 gigawatts of renewable power by 2030.But to speed the transition,governments in Asia and elsewhere mu护驾垛st do more.

更有期望的是,越来越多的亚洲政界人士表明支撑清洁动力。本年7月,菲律宾总统罗德里戈•杜特尔特要求动力部长削减菲律宾对煤炭的依靠。本年6月,印度政府表明,计划到2030年完成5亿千瓦的可再生动力sjyp官网发电能力。但为了加速转型,亚洲和其他区域的政府上古,310,长恨歌-雷竞技ios_雷竞技ios下载_雷竞技app苹果版有必要做得更多。

Politicians should move faster to reduce state support for coal.Rich countries should find ways 拜托了学妹to help.Middle-income countries in Asia would be right to point out that wealthier counterparts used coal to fuel their own growth and that America,Britain,Germany and Japan are among those that continue to supp电锯甜心小雨ort coal,for instance through tax breaks and budgetary transfers(and imports from coal-powered Asia).Abandoning coal in Asia may require diplomacy on a scale that few governments are ready to contemp上古,310,长恨歌-雷竞技ios_雷竞技ios下载_雷竞技app苹果版late.But abandon coal they must.

政客们应该加速举动,削减国家对煤炭的支撑。殷实国家应该想办法供给协助。亚洲中等收入国家应该正确地指出,相对殷实的国家用煤炭来推进自己的经济增加,而美国、英国、德国和日本是持续支撑煤炭的国家之一,例如经过减税和预算搬运(以及从以煤炭为动力的亚洲进口)。在亚洲弃用煤炭或许需求交际手法,其规划之大,很少有政府乐意考虑。但他们有必要抛弃煤炭。

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